Many women, up to 90%, suffer from menstrual pain, which is called dysmenorrhea, and it occurs due to the start of the menstrual cycle, which is the natural process of the body’s vital processes,


Women feel dysmenorrhea in the form of pain in the lower abdomen or back, and during exposure to these pain associated with the menstrual cycle, they lose a lot of their motor energy and are affected psychologically, so that they feel discomfort and sadness without any reason.

These feelings are caused by a general feeling of fatigue as well as a hormonal effect.

The menstrual cycle is a process that occurs in the female reproductive system every month, so that every female naturally has two ovaries, one on the right and the other on the left, and each contains a certain number of eggs,

These eggs remain stored in them until the female reaches a certain age at which the reproductive system is able to function, and this age is called puberty.

But the common mistake, especially in the Arab world, is that the girl at this stage is ready for pregnancy,

What is the stage of puberty except activation of the reproductive system to perform its vital functions

Despite her ability to conceive, she is not eligible for fetal care

The female in puberty is in the growth stage

The ovaries take turns releasing an egg every month in a row, once from the right and once from the left, the egg goes to the uterus through the fallopian tube.

It is in this channel that the egg is fertilized or not, depending on the presence of the sperm that were able to fuse with it first.

During this distance the egg travels, the uterus begins to prepare itself to receive the fertilized egg by building the lining of the uterine wall, and if it arrives without fertilization, the lining begins to tear because the body cuts food from it.

The torn lining falls out of the womb in the form of flesh mixed with blood .

Menstrual pain is caused by cramps that occur because the lining of the lining is torn.

It disappears once the lining is completely torn and goes down through the vaginal opening.

While there are menstrual pain called secondary dysmenorrhea, which is when a female begins to feel menstrual pain years after puberty,

Here, you must see a doctor, because the pain may be caused by infections, tumors, or others.

Types of dysmenorrhea

Dysmenorrhea is divided into two types :

  • Primary dysmenorrhea :

They are the common and regular uterine contractions, which are repeated every month during the menstrual period, and they do not occur for medical reasons. The pain usually starts a day or two before your period.

Or it may start when your period begins and the pain is in the lower abdomen, back, or thighs.

This pain may be moderate or severe and last from one to three days, and it may be associated with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and stomach upset.

  • Secondary dysmenorrhea :

It is secondary pain resulting from the presence of a disease or other disorder in the female reproductive system, such as: endometriosis, infection or uterine fibroids.

Pain in secondary dysmenorrhea begins early in the menstrual cycle, lasts longer than common menstrual cramps, and is not associated with any symptoms such as primary dysmenorrhea.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhea

Pain is the main symptom that you feel during dysmenorrhea. The pain begins when your period begins, or a few days or hours earlier :

  • Lower abdominal pain that can spread to the lower back and legs
  • Breast pain and flatulence, which may last throughout the cycle
  • Digestive problems, such as diarrhea or constipation
  • Pain or cramping in the lower abdomen
  • Feeling pain in the groin and hips in addition to the lower back
  • Clots in menstrual blood.
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Headache
Symptoms of dysmenorrhea

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What is the treatment for dysmenorrhea

Treatment for dysmenorrhea varies according to the cause of its occurrence and the type of primary or secondary dysmenorrhea.

Treating primary dysmenorrhea :

Women with dysmenorrhea need a comprehensive medical examination to ensure that menstrual pain is not caused by some reproductive disorders such as endometriosis or fibroids.

Dysmenorrhea treatment options can include :

  • Relaxation techniques
  • Pain relievers, such as paracetamol
  • Bed rest during the first day or so of this period.
  • Exercise regularly and pay attention to general fitness
  • Apply heat, such as a hot water bottle, to the abdomen
  • Combination birth control pills that reduce prostaglandins and thus reduce pain
  • Medicines that suppress prostaglandins, such as ibuprofen or other anti-inflammatory drugs

Treating secondary dysmenorrhea :

Treating secondary dysmenorrhea means treating the underlying condition causing it

1 _ Treatment of endometriosis :

Treatment for endometriosis includes :

  • Hormone therapy
  • Surgical treatment

2 _ Treating fibroids :

  • Medication to shrink fibroids before surgery
  • MRI and ultrasound – where the MRI identifies the fibroid, and uses ultrasound waves to heat up and destroy the fibroid tissue
  • Arterial embolism – where sand-like particles are injected into an artery to prevent blood from reaching the fibroid, causing it to gradually die

Home remedies and alternative medicine

Home remedies and alternative medicine include :

  • Sleep and rest.
  • Get regular exercise.
  • Sit in a hot bath and place the bag on the lower abdomen.
  • Reducing psychological pressure and stress.
  • Acupuncture
  • Take vitamin E, omega-3, thiamine, and magnesium supplements.

Tips and Advice

If you have a new period and experience intense pain with each period that forces you to stay in bed all day, try using common pain relievers. If the pain does not subside, it is necessary to consult a doctor

If you notice severe pain during menstrual periods, especially if it is accompanied by profuse menstrual blood, although this complaint has not occurred in the past three years or more, consult your doctor to find out any possible pathological cause behind this pain.

  • In the case of first dysmenorrhea, the doctor may see that the condition is related to stress and thus you may reassure yourself and calm down. She also believes it is essential to take an anti-prostaglandin medication to reduce pain and cramps.
  • In secondary dysmenorrhea, the condition should be closely examined to find any possible cause for the complaint of dysmenorrhea, and treatment is to address that cause.

Menstrual pain

Menstrual pain

The suffering of menstrual periods that differ between women may be mild and completely painless for some, but for others it is very stressful.

Most women experience cramps for a day or two during their periods, and this is normal.

Adolescent girls are also more likely to have painful menstrual periods than adult women, especially adult women who have previously had children.

In adolescence, menstrual pain improves over time.

Some women experience unbearable pain during their menstrual periods, which requires them to miss school or work. The amount of pain that represents this level is not normal and needs to be examined.

Why does menstruation cause pain?

What happens in the menstrual period is the rupture of the endometrium, every month the uterus prepares for pregnancy with the growth of a thick lining in which the blood flow increases while waiting for the reception of the fetus.

When pregnancy does not occur, the body expels the endometrium.

During this time, blood vessels open, the lining of the uterine wall shed, and the muscles of the uterus contract to expel the blood and tissue. During these simple contractions, it is common for women to experience contractions in the lower abdomen as blood is expelled from the uterine body and exits the cervix before leaving the vaginal opening.

These cramps are caused by hormone-like compounds that the body produces, called prostaglandins, and are the main source of menstrual pain associated with pelvic pain.

High levels of prostaglandins have been associated with severe menstrual cramps. These cramps are usually strongest on the first day or two of the start of your period and then settle for the remaining four to five days.

What is endometriosis

It is a condition in which tissue similar to the tissue lining the uterus forms and grows outside the uterus. It can grow on the ovaries and intestines, and in rare cases it is found outside the pelvis as well as in the lungs.

Hormones that stimulate menstruation cause bleeding in these places where the endometrial tissue is present, and this is the cause of pain.

Endometriosis usually causes pain during your menstrual period that begins before your usual period and lasts longer than your usual period.

Sometimes this pain does not go away at the end of your period.

Women with endometriosis experience pain at the time of ovulation or when having sex.

Another problem associated with endometriosis is infertility, which is a common condition that affects 16% to 61% of women with delayed childbearing, meaning that an estimated 100 million women worldwide have endometriosis.

Women may not be aware of the disease or think this pain is normal. They tend to be pain tolerant, and this may also happen in teenage girls and young women.

Although the exact cause of endometriosis is not known, there are several theories such as the re-flow (inversion) of endometrial tissue outside the uterus through the fallopian tube, and this tissue may grow in the pelvic cavity at sites outside the uterus.

The way nerves interpret pain in the pelvic region also plays a role.

Some women with large endometriosis have few symptoms, while others have mild endometriosis with very severe symptoms.

Affected girls and women often experience negative impacts on their education and work, and there may be a decrease in productivity at work and school due to the pain and discomfort of endometriosis.

Treatment includes hormonal pills such as oral contraceptives.

An injection of progesterone or the intrauterine device is also helpful for some to reduce pain during menstrual periods.

Source dysmenorrhea wiki

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